Sea star axial organ: Ancestral lymphoid organ (2023)

Quoted by (13)

  • Evolution of the organogenesis of the thymus.

    2013, Comparative and Developmental Immunology

    Quote excerpt:

    This leads to the assumption that the appearance of cells similar to protolymphocytes could have existed before the divergence of cyclostomes and gnathostomes or even before the appearance of vertebrates. In fact, some studies have identified cells morphologically similar to lymphocytes in amphioxus and Botryllus schlosseri, two subphyla of chordate invertebrates, and in the sea star Asteria rubens, a sister phylum of chordate (Leclerc et al., 1980, 1981). Whether these cells have the functions of lymphocytes awaits further investigation.

    The thymus is the primary organ for the functional development of T lymphocytes in jawed vertebrates. New research on the jawless fish, the lampreys, indicates the existence of a primitive thymus in these surviving representatives of the oldest vertebrates, providing strong evidence for the coevolution of T cells and the thymus. This review summarizes the large amount of data that has been collected to understand the evolution of the thymus in vertebrates. Advances in the identification of the genetic networks and cellular mechanisms that control thymic organogenesis in mammals and its evolution in lower species may foster the development of new strategies for medical interventions targeting thymic dysfunctions.

  • New insights into V(D)J recombination and its role in the evolution of the immune system

    1995, immunity

  • Immunocompetent cells in the sea star Asterias rubens. ultrastructural study

    1985, International Cell Biology Reports

    The cells of the axial organ of the sea star Asterias rubens were divided into two populations, adhesive and non-adhesive to the nylon wool. In both populations, an ultrastructural study revealed the presence of cells similar to vertebrate lymphocytes, as well as peroxidase-positive phagocytic cells. Lymphocyte-like cells in the nonadherent population (mean diameter 4 μ) have a high NCR and are morphologically similar to Th cells, while adherent cells (mean diameter 5.5 μ) are more similar to lymphocytes. Bm.

    These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that there is a primitive immune system in the starfish with characteristics similar to those of the vertebrate immune system.

    (Video) Invertebrate Biology: Echinoderms (sea stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, etc.)
  • This chapter discusses the basic concepts and benefits of invertebrate immunity. In mammals and other higher vertebrates, there is a wealth of information on the origin, development, structure, and functions of the cells and tissues of the immune system. The cells of the invertebrate immune system can be divided into two main groups, namely, freely circulating blood cells/coelomocytes and various fixed cells. These latter cells may be dispersed throughout the tissues or localized together in hemopoietyphagocytic organs. In addition to these cell-mediated defenses, there are various chemical and mechanical barriers to parasite invasion. The chapter also explains the structure and classification of blood cells/coelomocytes. It provides a functional approach to the classification of blood cells, and cells are organized into five major groups, namely progenitor cells, phagocytic cells, hemostatic cells, nutrient cells, and pigment cells.

  • Specific immune response in the sea star Asterias rubens: Production of "antibody" factors

    1984, Cell Immunology

    Starfish axial organ cells (asterias turn red) inoculated 7 days before with PAA beads haptened with TNP or FITC and subsequently stimulatedin vitrowith the same antigen, produced and released a specific, soluble "antibody-like" substance that induced lysis of haptenized sheep erythrocytes. Fresh normal rabbit or guinea pig serum was essential for lysis, indicating the involvement of complement components. The factor was produced by the total population of axial organ cells, but not by adherent (B-like) or nonadherent (T-like) nylon wool cells. These results provide further evidence for the existence, in the sea star, of a primitive immune system with characteristics reminiscent of the immune system of vertebrates.

  • An MLR-like reaction between axial organ cells of an asterid

    1984, Immunology Letters

    Acceptance [3H]thymidine was studied in axial organ (AO) cells that were derived from two starfish and mixed in a 50/50 ratio. Mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) pools gave a positive response on the fifth day of culture in approximately 20% of the pools tested (ratio: 1.8–6.7). No positive reaction was observed in the allogeneic system. It seems that more significant results are obtained with non-adherent nylonwool subpopulation cells of the two species, rather than with cells from whole axial organs.

    (Video) A&P 1 course Lecture 6 Video

See all articles cited in Scopus

Recommended Articles (6)

  • Investigation article

    Molecular phylogeny of Megalobatrachonema (Nematoda: Ascaridida), with description of a new species based on morphological and molecular evidence

    Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Volume 80, 2020, Article 104172

    Kind ofmegalobatraconema Yamaguti, 1941(Ascaridida: Cosmocercoidea) are important nematode parasites on amphibians and reptiles. However, their phylogenetic relationship includes two subgeneramegalobatraconemaiChabaudgolvaniait is not yet clear. In this study, a new speciesmegalobatraconema,METRO.(Chabaudgolvania)fragrantsp. nov., was described based on samples collected from a small frogQuasipaa exilispinosa(Liu & Hu) (Amphibians: Anura) in China. Ribosomal [large (28S) ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1–5.8S-ITS2)] and mitochondrial [12S small subunit ribosomal DNA and cytochromeCoxidase 1 subunit (helmsman1)] target regions of the new species iMETRO.(Chabaudgolvania)terdentato, along with the 12S regionMETRO.(megalobatraconema)hainanense, were amplified and sequenced for molecular identification and phylogeny. Furthermore, to clarify the systematic position of the new species and the phylogenetic relationship of the two subgeneramegalobatraconemaiChabaudgolvania, phylogenetic analyzes based on 28S+ITS1–5.8S-ITS2+12S sequence data were performed using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). Results from molecular phylogenetics conflicted with the current classification and called into question the validity of the subgenus.Chabaudgolvania, should be a synonym of the subgenusmegalobatraconema. The presence or absence of valves in the esophageal bulb as a key criterion for the delimitation of two subgeneramegalobatraconemaiChabaudgolvaniaseems unreliable.

  • Investigation article

    Oriental medicine secrets: Panax ginseng

    Proteomics journal, Svezak 130, 2016, str. 150-159

    HePanax ginsengthe root proteome was investigated by capture using combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) at three different pH values. Proteomic characterization by SDS-PAGE and nLC-MS/MS analysis, through LTQ-Orbitrap XL, led to the identification of a total of 207 expressed proteins. This rather large number of identifications was achieved by querying two different plant databases:P ginsengiArabidopsis thaliana. The main groups of proteins identified were related to structural species (19.2%), oxidoreductase (19.5%), dehydrogenases (7.6%) and synthases (9.0%). For the first time, a study of protein-protein interactions was carried out by linking all recognized proteins and building an interactome map, characterized by 196 nodes and 1554 interactions. Finally, a peptide assay combining different in-silico enzymatic digestions was developed to simulate the human gastrointestinal process: out of 661 generated peptides, 95 were identified as potential bioactives and 6 in particular were characterized by antimicrobial activity. This report offers new insights for future research to elucidate the biological properties.P ginsengproteome and peptide.

    (Video) This Is How Your Body Builds Immunity

    Ginseng is a traditional oriental herbal medicine that is widely used throughout the world due to its numerous pharmacological effects. However, the exact mechanism of action of ginseng components, both ginsenosides and proteins, has not yet been identified. Therefore, the common use of ginseng requires rigorous research to assess its efficacy and safety. Although many reports have been published on the pharmacological effects of ginseng, little is known about the biochemical pathways of the root. Proteomic analysis could be useful to elucidate physiological pathways. In this manuscript, an integrated approach to proteomics and peptidomics will open up researchPanax ginsengproteolytic proteins and peptides, obtained by in-silico gastrointestinal digestion, characterized by antimicrobial activity. This research would pave the way for a better understanding of metabolic functions associated with the ginseng proteome and provide new information needed to better understand antimicrobial activity.P ginseng.

  • Investigation article

    Modeling of aw, pH and ion distribution in marinated meat

    Meat Science, volume 97, number 3, 2014, p. 347-357

    New beef products can be developed from low-value cuts by marinating, as this process has been shown to improve meat sensory properties and shelf life. However, for the optimization of processes, mathematical models are needed to predict the evolution of the physicochemical properties that determine biochemical and structural changes. Two main works were carried out to develop comprehensive models: (1) Thermodynamic models were adapted to predict the water sorption isotherm and tissue pH of beef in the presence of salts (NaCl, KCl) and organic acids (acetic acid). , lactic, citric and ascorbic). acid), (2) Fickian numerical models were fitted to predict ion migration within pieces of meat using apparent diffusivities previously estimated from 1D experiments. The simulation calculations showed reasonable agreement with the measurements and can be used to investigate the influence of marinating conditions, product heterogeneity, dimensions and shape.

  • Investigation article

    Structure and function of extracellular O-GlcNAc

    Current opinion in structural biology, svezak 56, 2019., str. 72-77

    extracellularO-GlcNAc is a unique modification restricted to glycoproteins containing the epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain. ThisO-GlcNAcylation is catalyzed by a specific EGF domainO- GlcNAc transferase (EOGT), which is located in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. inhumans,EGOit is one of the genes that causes the congenital disease, Adams-Oliver syndrome. EOGT is highly expressed on endothelial cells and regulates vascular development and integrity by enhancing Delta ligand-mediated Notch signaling. youdrosophila, Eogt modifies Dumpy, an apical extracellular matrix glycoprotein, and affects Dumpy-dependent cell-matrix interaction. In this review, we summarize what we know so far about the structure and functions of the extracellular spaces.O-GlcNAc in animals.

  • Investigation article

    Possible differences in the mechanism of malignant transformation of HaCaT cells by arsenite and its dimethylated metabolites, especially dimethylthioarsenic

    Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, volumen 61, 2020, artículo 126544

    (Video) Regrowing Your Head: Regeneration in the Sea Star

    : As a confirmed human carcinogen, arsenic can cause skin cancer, lung cancer, etc. However, its carcinogenic mechanism is still unclear. In recent years, the oxidative stress hypothesis has become widely accepted. In mammals, arsenic has been found to be converted to dimethylarsinic acid (DMAthird) and dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTAV) through a series of methylation reactions and redox reactions. WFDthirdI DMMTAVthey are very toxic.

    : Human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were exposed to different concentrations of NaAsO2(IAthird), DMMTAVYo DMAthirdfor 24 hours. Reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide), oxidative damage markers (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde) and antioxidant markers (glutathione and superoxide dismutase) were measured. Furthermore, sulfane sulfides were measured in HaCaT cells and in a cell-free system.

    :YDMMTAVYo DMAthirdtreatment groups, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide levels in HaCaT cells were higher than in AIthirdtherapeutic groups at the same dose. 8−OHdG and MDA levels in DMMTAVYo DMAthirdtreatment groups were also higher than AIthirdtherapeutic groups at the same dose. However, in DMMTAVYo DMAthirdtreatment groups, GSH and SOD activity levels were lower than those of IAthirdtreatment groups. in DMMTAV-HaCaT cells treated, sulfane sulfides were produced. Furthermore, it was found that DMMTAVcould react with DMDTAVfor persulfide formation in a cell-free system, which may explain the mechanism of formation of sulfane sulfides in DMMTAVtreated HaCaT cells.

    : DMMTAVYo DMAthirdmore readily induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes oxidative damage in HaCaT cells than inorganic arsenic. Furthermore, the persulfide formed by the DMMTA reactionVand DMDTAVis formed by the metabolism of DMMTAVmay induce a stronger reductive defense mechanism than GSH against the intracellular oxidative stress of DMMTAV. However, cells exposed to arsenite are transformed by sustained nuclear translocation of Nrf2 due to oxidative stress, and dimethylthioarsenic persulfide can promote Nrf2 by combining with thiol groups, especially the key redox control protein, Keap1, which ultimately instance causes nuclear translocation of viable Nrf2.

  • Investigation article

    An antegrade neuroanatomical tracing method showing detailed morphology of neurons, their axons, and terminals: Immunohistochemical localization of the plant axon-borne lectin, Phaseolus vulgaris-leukoagglutinin (PHA-L).

    Brain Research, Volume 1645, 2016, p. 42-4

    A new neuroanatomical method to monitor connections in the central nervous system is described, which is based on the anterograde axonal transport of the bean lectin Phaseolus vulgaris-leukoagglutinin (PHA-L). The method, for which a detailed protocol is presented, offers several advantages over existing techniques. First, when the lectin is delivered by iontophoresis, PHA-L injection sites as small as 50 to 200 µm in diameter can be produced and are clearly demarcated because the neurons within the labeled area are completely filled. Second, many morphological features of such filled neurons are clearly shown, including their cell bodies, axons, dendritic arches, and even dendritic spines. Third, there is some evidence to suggest that only whole neurons at the injection site transmit detectable amounts of marker, raising the possibility that the effective injection site can be defined very precisely. Fourth, even with the most limited injections, the morphology of labeled axons and axon terminals is clearly shown; these include boutons en passant, fine collateral branches, and various terminal specializations, all of which can be visualized as in the best Golgi fast mounts. Fifth, when introduced iontophoretically, PHA-L appears to be preferentially transported in an antegrade direction; it is rarely transported retrograde. Sixth, PHA-L does not appear to be efficiently absorbed and transported by passing fibers. Seventh, there is no visible degradation of the transported PHA-L with a survival time of up to 17 days. Finally, since the carried marker can be demonstrated by peroxidase techniques or fluorescent antibodies, it can be used in conjunction with other neuroanatomical methods. For example, anterograde double labeling experiments can be performed by autoradiography in conjunction with localization of PHA-L with immunoperoxidase, and retrogradely transported fluorescent dyes can be visualized in the same tissue sections as PHA-L localized by immunofluorescence techniques. ©1984.

    This article is part of a special edition titled SI: 50th Anniversary Edition.

Copyright © 1980. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

(Video) Anatomy and Physiology of Integumentary System Skin


1. ch 27
(Rebecca Gehringer)
2. Genetic Research Tools for the Study of the Lymphatic Vascular System - LE&RN
(Lymphatic Education & Research Network (LE&RN))
3. Alien Biospheres: Part 2 - Early life and Body Plans
4. Connective Tissue Histology
5. Sea star|haemal perihaemal system|circulatory system|blood vascular system
(Simple Learning)
6. Animal Diversity Part II
(Steve Gorsich)


Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Neely Ledner

Last Updated: 06/25/2023

Views: 6011

Rating: 4.1 / 5 (62 voted)

Reviews: 85% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Neely Ledner

Birthday: 1998-06-09

Address: 443 Barrows Terrace, New Jodyberg, CO 57462-5329

Phone: +2433516856029

Job: Central Legal Facilitator

Hobby: Backpacking, Jogging, Magic, Driving, Macrame, Embroidery, Foraging

Introduction: My name is Neely Ledner, I am a bright, determined, beautiful, adventurous, adventurous, spotless, calm person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.